1. Activity: Different Approaches to design

Different approaches to design

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Rebecca Galley
23 January 2013

Activity 1: (15-20 minutes): Research has shown that individuals, teams and institutions can adopt quite different approaches to how they set about conceiving of and describing learning designs. In part this may reflect different approaches to teaching and different institutional cultures. Spend 10 minutes thinking about the last time you needed to design a learning experience (for other learners or for yourself) and post your thoughts on this Cloud (below), or on your blog, via twitter (#oldsmooc_w3), or on the thread on Google Groups called Different approaches to design. The following questions may help to focus your thoughts:
  • Which part/s of the design do you usually think about first when you begin a new learning design? Do you start with – the learners, the technology, learning approach, previous designs, resource constraints, time constraints, institutional strategy, or ... ?
  • Where do your ideas originate? From colleagues, from conferences or events, from student data or feedback, from personal experience, from case studies, or ...?
  • What difficulties do you encounter when trying to describe your design ideas to colleagues or to yourself?

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Hugues Chicoine
3:09pm 23 January 2013 (Edited 7:36pm 24 January 2013)


w3.1 

Rebecca, Gràinne, Colleagues,

Institutional ('ambient') considerations

... let me mention from the start that there is no such thing as starting a 'new design'; instead, the concern is usually with a new course or the redesign or rehabilitation of an existing teaching-learning body of knowledge although a (more or less) new design may well ensue at a later stage of such project.
Encounters such as oldsmooc are likely to provide new horizons and creative approaches to educational design, and yes, new designs eventually (from my very first encounter with the oldsmooc experiment, I have been thinking of the ways in which Cloudworks could be used as the main or exclusive platform for an online course... and this in itself would bring about a thorough shift in thinking out the detailed construction of an online course, and maybe generate a genuinely new design prototype).
The intention of creating a new course (or academic program thereof—courses are never thrown on the market out of the whim of a learning designer) is subject to institutional procedures (academic and administrative assessment and approval) and affordances (technical and staff, budget), and to other considerations among faculty members. The mission, personality and image of the institution are reflected in those considerations.
For the purpose of this discussion, I envisage an online course, inserted in an entirely mediated university program (not hybrid or blended, nothing synchronous in order to provide all interested learners with equal opportunity, and to standardise and balance assessment on a equal plane).
So, first, I'd say, institutional considerations (let’s call them ‘ambient’).
A project summary needs to be presented to the approval instances and the information therein enclosed is usually binding, How far do you want to go with announcing a new design at this stage. Remember, all institutional affordances are out of the province of individual professors. Platforms (drupal, cloudworks, moodle or blackboard, claroline, etc.) are very seldom offered as 'options'. The afforded institutional preferences and procedures make quite a difference for the rest of the process and, in my opinion, course design must be discerning enough to integrate any and all such prequisites. But this is hardly a different approach to educatioinal design.

Ideation sources

I have on hand a series of examples and models old and new (from various sources, not just local) that cover a wide range of possibilities with regard to visual presentation, type of platform and extent of course outline preparation (very important for the faculty). However, all professors who teach would know they'll need to make decisions may examine what is done by others in the same or similar domains. The best ideas come from the content at hand (e.g., mental health, finance) and the type of work assignments or activities the professor wants to implement in her course. The question then becomes: what form of course organisation should the student see on the front page (to work with) between the course calendar, a breakdown of topics, other forms of knowledge structure involved in the course, learner activities as they related to one of the former, etc. Often, it is not necessary to have a ready-made design  but generally a culturally familiar and well tried format known to be 'successful' (LMS-type) will take a lot a lot of stress away for both the professor and the learners and in that case, the process is entirely procedural and hardly needs a genuine 'prototype'. Other more unusual cases arise (wiil show in week 5).

Then one of the two basic approaches according to the Dutch school remains open:

Two main types of design principles can be distinguished (Van den Akker, 1999): 1. procedural design principles: characteristics of the design approach; 2. substantive design principles: characteristics of the design (= intervention) itself. (Plomp 2010:23) [italics added]

Difficulties in describing design ideas?

Designers are required to possess good oral and writing communication skills, including toward the demonstration of their professional abilities. For my part and although it is a challenge each time, I have been using extensively the same--now familiar--concept mapping tool for years. 

/HCh

ps: I read some comments on the limitation of Cloudworks for exchanges between participants. I will nevertheless use this space for discussion because it has 'Mail notification' and the 'Follow' function is effective when used in conjunction with the 'All activity on items you are following' under the Cloudstreams heading. I'm wondering why the Cloudstreams heading wasn't added at the top of the page with the other main headings. Needless to say, I love Cloudworks.

 

PLOMP, T. 2010. Educational Design Research: an Introduction. In: An introduction to educational design research, Tjeerd Plomp & Nienke Nieveen Eds, Proceedings of the seminar conducted at the East China Normal University, Shanghai, November 23-26, 2007. SLO - Netherlands institute for curriculum development. (http://tinyurl.com/d597y8)

 

Gráinne Conole
5:32pm 23 January 2013


Hi glad you like Cloudworks it's kind of our baby - good to see it growing into a stroppy teenager ;-)

I agree designs are never from scratch nonetheless it is useful to try and conceptualise an ideal design, to think out of the box and to try and be more creative. Hopefully the Conceptual Design Views you will enage with in Week 3 will enable you to do this. Hope you are enjoying the course!

Alice (Xin) Huang
3:21am 24 January 2013


My thoughts on different approaches to design

  • Which part/s of the design do you usually think about first when you begin a new learning design? Do you start with – the learners, the technology, learning approach, previous designs, resource constraints, time constraints, institutional strategy, or ... ?

Whenever I start a new learning design, I always start with who the learners are, what challenges they are facing everyday, what issues they have in their everyday business practice Then I will look at what can be sovled by this learning design, what can be solved by other learning design, what is a performance issue, what can we do to connect learning with practice, what needs to be created as a follow up support for learners (things like job aids)  and what needs to put in place to ensure transfer of learning will happen. .( ---This is why I really enjoyed the week 2 topic, personas, contextualise learning project.  ) Then I can draw a concep map for the new leanring design. 

  • Where do your ideas originate? From colleagues, from conferences or events, from student data or feedback, from personal experience, from case studies, or ...?

When I worked for GlaxoSmithKline, my ideas of new learning design always originate from the discussion with colleagues, the managers/supervisors of the sales representatives and of couse sale people themselves. I aslo did a lot of co-visiting, and use that opportunity to observe potential learning needs. Then I will talk to the Marketing and sales directors to get an overall understanding of their strategy. With all of these information I would feel comfortable to start planning of the new learning design. 

Now I work for open polytechnic, an educational setting, one thing glaring missing is the learners, My end user: learner becomes invisible, this really makes me nervous.  I watched the video clips of week 2 showing how the tutor team working together to design MOOC, and the discussion you have about who are the audience for this course, this really helps me, I would try to use this method working with tutor and subject matter expert next time to get a better understand of our learners.  

  • What difficulties do you encounter when trying to describe your design ideas to colleagues or to yourself?

The biggest difficulity I had and have it to visualise the design concepts or design details to my colleauges, in my case, is the course tutors and key faculty memeber. (English is my second language which add one more difficult layer to it)

Cheers,

Alice (Xin) Huang

Sancha de Burca
11:32am 24 January 2013


Hello All - my thoughts on approaches to design

W3 Approaches to Design

When planning new learning design I usually think about what needs to be learned – ie the content. This, in turn, will probably be broken down into smaller portions. I especially think about how one piece needs to follow another, a kind of chronology, to ensure that the learner would understand each part of the process before moving on to another. Another part that I consider is the inspiration or motivating parts. I like to use interesting case studies and unusual pieces of design for analysis.  I try to build on my own learning from previous design – what went well, what went less well and what is outdated or needs to be newly addressed (this happened a lot in graphic design, which is ever-moving technologically). I look particularly at elements I consider need to be learned in order to move in to a community of practice and think about how learners might like to approach this, especially if it might be considered a more dry or boring part of the course/project. As well as practice I also teach theory which can be challenging, so I try to find interactive scenarios and examples to demonstrate it. I think previous designs can sometimes be followed because of habit and comfort zones so I try to re-consider the relevance of well-used parts of learning design. Often, it is just nice to change things so that the facilitators don’t get stale.

I do get a lot of inspiration for learning design from conferences and exhibitions that I have attended, or from guest speakers, practitioners and competitions. I find the annual e-learning conference at the University of Greenwich one of the richest places for ideas (although we don’t always take them direct, but adapt them – and I am very careful not to use technology just because it is there). I usually do get really fired up to bring new ways of looking or practicing into the learning design. This is probably one of the most rewarding parts of my profession – if I am inspired I want to pass that on to my learners. I have some really helpful colleagues and there is one in particular that I discuss all of this with. Frequently I will actually be designing whole courses or individual project briefs with him, although there are also ones that I will be working on alone. Having an idea and then chewing the fat over it is really helpful and indeed fun!

I do not think that I have had difficulties explaining my ideas about learning design –although maybe I should ask the people I am talking to. Quite often when planning with my colleague we take a kind of “what if…” approach and draw up charts, mind maps or visualisations to help us get it all in shape. This might be because we are teaching graphic design where most of what we do is visualise! I picture everything taking place across time, so I often make calendars to work out designs.

One other thing has occurred to me and that is that it is really interesting and enjoyable to design learning when you are confident about the subject matter. However, I also have been involved in learning design where I am less confident of the actual subject – where I am not part of the community of professional practice. This is much harder and could only be done in teams where people are sharing skills and knowledge. The pedagogical aspects are not so difficult but actually deciding what logistics (activities, resources etc) are beneficial is quite challenging.

Sancha

Ann Davis
12:48pm 24 January 2013 (Edited 1:01pm 24 January 2013)


I work in a corporate environment and all of my clients are internal business units so maybe my approach is slightly different than others. 

  • Which part/s of the design do you usually think about first when you begin a new learning design? Do you start with – the learners, the technology, learning approach, previous designs, resource constraints, time constraints, institutional strategy, or ... ?

I usually ask my clients what ultimately is the purpose.  Is this simply information or a resource that the students need to be aware of?  Is it a requirement that the students actually read all of the content and have a basic understanding?  Or do they need to show some sort of mastery of the subject matter either in being able to answer questions, apply knowledge to situations, or demonstrate skill?  Once I know that, then I start to look at time constraints and also how they want the material to be taught (face-to-face, virtual classroom, or web-based).

  • Where do your ideas originate? From colleagues, from conferences or events, from student data or feedback, from personal experience, from case studies, or ...?

I've been designing for 12 years so I have a bit of experience already, but I am open to ideas from all sources. When I see something from a colleague that I really enjoy, I take note of it for future reference.  While I usually don't have the opportunity to attend conferences, I do make use of various memeberships that allow me to attend free webinars to gain ideas.  I have been fortunate to have been part of many different design teams and often contact my colleagues for ideas or review of my ideas to make them better.

  • What difficulties do you encounter when trying to describe your design ideas to colleagues or to yourself?

This really depends on the person.  Since I often have no face-to-face contact with my client, I try to keep in mind several different ways of describing the plan to them.  Are they someone who can simply read and get it?  Do they need to have a visual?  Do they need to have a live conversation, or combination of things.  If I am re-using a method that I have seen before, I will often show them what it looks like and how we might change it to suit our purposes.

P.S.  When it comes to Cloudworks, I do like many aspects of it, but it would be nice if you could mark Your own cloudscape as a favourite within cloudworks, and not just others. It would make it faster to be able to get back to your own page.  As it is, I have to make it a favorite in the browser I am using and would have to set it up as a favorite in each device being used.

 

Cristina Neto
12:59pm 24 January 2013


Hello all,

This is how it usually works for me:

When I think in a new learning design, I usuallly begin by thinking about the students. Since I work with teenagers and youngsters my worries are about what might interest them and gather their attention.  Of course, I have to combine a lot of other aspects like available resources and technology and my own limitations.

My ideas usually appear to me when I’m driving home :). Then I record them in my cell phone so I won’t forget them. They’re usually related to everyday situations. I like to provide learning designs which relate to students’ lives, something they know, or have seen or heard something about, but are not aware. It usually works quite well, since they get quite surprised when they discover they already knew that, they just hadn’t thought about it. This way I believe they get more engaged.

Sometimes, I get my ideas from things I see on the news or on the Internet, or elsewhere. Very often I pick somebody else’s idea and transform it to meet my needs.

What often happens, though, is that I’ve this great idea and then I spent a lot of time trying to find some tool to use for a particular task and I can’t find it or it is not for free. Then I have to find a different way to do what I’ve planned, but I always end up succeeding and doing it one way or the other.  The outcome sometimes is a bit different from what I’ve imagined mas it serves the same purpose.

I usually don’t have much difficulty in explaining my idea. When it comes out differently than planned, I usually have a good reason for it. As my resources aren’t so many I easily find it easy to explain what I mean, although I usually talk about this with people who are at the same technological level I am, or above. Unfortunately, in Portugal there are still many many teachers which are way beyond on ICT, specially the older ones. Anyway, when I imagine something more complex, I usually ask for help from my colleagues and I’ve learned quite a lot by asking and seeking help, that’s for sure!

I agree with Sancha in her last paragraph when she says its easier if you're designing for something you know well. Sometimes I've been asked to design for other teacher's subjects and I have to do it with them, and not for them. Isn't always like that? Not just in teaching but in all areas (politics???... If you know about a subject you know all the constraints you might find and all the achievements you might aim.

Cristina Neto

Carolyn Gregoire
3:02pm 24 January 2013


Hello!

I work for the government, and generally design eLearning about policies and guidelines.  Sounds exciting eh?!  But actually, it can be!  My job is to educate the general public, employers, organizations, etc. about their human rights and responsibilities, with the goal of making positive change in my province (for example, fewer human rights complaints in schools), in conjunction with all of the work that my colleages do.  We also do face-to-face trainings, but the demand is more than we can achieve, so we are moving towards eLearning to meet the needs of our population. 

Which part/s of the design do you usually think about first when you begin a new learning design?

I always start with the needs of the users.  The policy development process begins with many consultations, surveys, etc., and I use the feedback from this process to assess the learning needs of users.  I also attend face-to-face trainings, where I observe the types of questions learners ask, any misunderstandings, and where their main interests lie.  This is also particularly important for me because sometimes I have to break a policy down and create different types of learning for different audiences.  For example, learning for the general public will be different than learning for employers.

Where do your ideas originate?

My ideas come from consultations with the learners, and also by thinking about their needs.  Will they participate in something that is 20 minutes long? Do they need a full course? Or a short animated video that will be shared via social networking to get a message to as many people as possible? Once I have this information, I can narrow-down my ideas and determine what technology to use, the format of the learning, etc. 

What difficulties do you encounter when trying to describe your design ideas to colleagues or to yourself?

This is a new process for my colleagues, and many of them do not yet understand what I do!  I think the main difficulty I encounter is getting colleagues to understand the importance of pedagogy and design.  Many don't understand why we can't simply post a narrated powerpoint presentation online, or re-word a policy document into a Captivate presentation.  I think this will change as our products begin to be released.

Gráinne Conole
4:25pm 24 January 2013


Hi Alice thanks for your thoughts - always good to start with the learners and talking with colleagues is one of the best ways of getting ideas!

Gráinne Conole
4:27pm 24 January 2013


Sancha 

I also find conferences a good source of inspiration if i come away with one or two good ideas I feel it has been worth it. Interesting to hear the different approaches people adopt when starting a new design! 

Gráinne Conole
4:28pm 24 January 2013


Hi Ann 

 

re your own clouds they are listed under your profile page.

Niall Watts
5:22pm 24 January 2013


  • Which part/s of the design do you usually think about first when you begin a new learning design?
  • Usually I am approached by a member of academic staff, or in my previous commercial life by a client,  I  tend to start by finding out what they want, what they hope to achieve (similar to Ann Davis)
  • Where do your ideas originate? From colleagues, from conferences or events, from student data or feedback, from personal experience, from case studies, or ...?
  • All of the above. Some good blogs too. Donald Clark. James Clay
  • What difficulties do you encounter when trying to describe your design ideas to colleagues or to yourself? 
  • A prototype can help to explain to non-technically minded colleagues and also identify possible weaknesses. I agree with the previous point about the difficulty of designing for subjects outside your own discipline, knowledge or experience. Commercial projects tended to be for relatively esy content e.g, how to use a software system. Academic can be for any subject at a high level

Chris Basson
6:56pm 24 January 2013


  • Which part/s of the design do you usually think about first when you begin a new learning design? Do you start with – the learners, the technology, learning approach, previous designs, resource constraints, time constraints, institutional strategy, or ... ?

The thing I think of first is my target audience, who are they and what would be the best approach for them. My approach to the learning design will differ depending on whether I work with clerical staff or middle management.

  • Where do your ideas originate? From colleagues, from conferences or events, from student data or feedback, from personal experience, from case studies, or ...?

Brainstorming is sometimes the best, I get a few of my colleagues together and have a anything-goes approach. Somewhere things start to gel and resonate. Another approach is to consult learning experts to find their point of view. Sometimes I borrow from other designers :)

  • What difficulties do you encounter when trying to describe your design ideas with colleagues or to yourself?

I have the Idea of how learning activities need to play out in my head but the most difficult thing is to translate that to the facilitators. It seems that conveying too many things and restricting them too much might be hampering the learning process of the in-the-moment adjustment of the facilitator. 

Cathie Jackson
7:26pm 24 January 2013


  • Which part/s of the design do you usually think about first when you begin a new learning design? Do you start with – the learners, the technology, learning approach, previous designs, resource constraints, time constraints, institutional strategy, or ... ?  I start by considering the bigger picture of what new practice the students are trying to achieve (in the wider curriculum) and what new knowledge or skills are needed to scaffold them to this new practice.  Understanding context is key and I need to ensure the learning design enables the student to understand the direct relevance and benefits of what they are learning to their practice. So I start with the learners, followed by the learning approach.
  • Where do your ideas originate? From colleagues, from conferences or events, from student data or feedback, from personal experience, from case studies, or ...? All of the above. In the most recent experience (which you ask us to reflect upon), I particularly drew on peers; both what I'd learnt from observing a colleague for peer review (both good practice and things to avoid), and myself using the peer review system to reflect on my learning design with a colleague.
  • What difficulties do you encounter when trying to describe your design ideas to colleagues or to yourself? Traditional-style written lesson plans have been helpful in describing individual lessons to others but I've never had to try and plan anything as complicated as a MOOC for which such a two dimensional method would be so inappropriate.

Clare Gormley
9:03pm 24 January 2013


Hi all,

This is how it usually works for me:

Which part/s of the design do you usually think about first when you begin a new learning design? Do you start with – the learners, the technology, learning approach, previous designs, resource constraints, time constraints, institutional strategy, or ... ?
Where do your ideas originate? From colleagues, from conferences or events, from student data or feedback, from personal experience, from case studies, or ...?
What difficulties do you encounter when trying to describe your design ideas to colleagues or to yourself?

  • Which part/s of the design do you usually think about first when you begin a new learning design? Do you start with – the learners, the technology, learning approach, previous designs, resource constraints, time constraints, institutional strategy, or ... ?

Well I'd love to be able to say that it always starts with the learner, but I'm afraid that isn't always the case for me! It usually starts with the content/topic to be covered and then I think about the time that's available and what's do-able within that timeframe (eg sometimes it might have to be a straightforward PDF, other times a narrated screencast or something more sophisticated with interactions). As I develop the design I think more about the learner and what will work best for them.

  • Where do your ideas originate? From colleagues, from conferences or events, from student data or feedback, from personal experience, from case studies, or ...?
I would get some ideas for designs from colleagues sharing good examples and also from eLearning tools/technology-related sites and bloggers (eg Tom Kuhlman and the Articulate community). Past experience also plays a role.
  • What difficulties do you encounter when trying to describe your design ideas to colleagues or to yourself?
I think the biggest problem I have is trying to imagine and communicate the overall essence of a resource at the design stage. This is a problem for me as well as the people I'm trying to explain it to! I tend to get bogged down in one aspect (eg what the text will say) without fully considering all the other elements (eg graphics, interactions, assessments) that should be considered & discussed at the design stage, instead of later on in the process.

Alan Clarke
5:32pm 25 January 2013


I normally start with considering what my objectives are for the course or material, who are the learners and what do they want to gain from the learning. My normal approach is to try to write my ideas down in such a way that I can use it to consult colleagues so that they can provide feedback about the idea. I am trying to identify other solutions that already exist or suggestions for approaching the task. While I am waiting for my colleagues to respond I would  begin to search for solutions in other institutions. This usually takes the form of a search of the Internet and a lot of reading. I may also consult colleagues through discussion groups.

My initial focus will be on the first session. It is vital to provide a motivating experience for the learners that will convince them to come back. I will often try to write a detaile description of what it will contain, what learning approaches to use etc. This is then linked to a far more vague overview of the rest of the course.

When my colleagues start to contribute I will add their ideas and suggestions to form a sort of rough storyboard with some aspects offering more detail than others. This is not useful to anyone except myself but does allow me to develop the course as a whole. I am often concerned about time. Do we have too much or two little content. Is it the right length for the learners? Who will be the tutor/tutors? A weakness I know I have is to see myself as the tutor and so to write for myself and not consider others too much.

Gráinne Conole
10:30am 26 January 2013


Great to hear your different approaches to design! I think the miixture of approaches shows that there is no one right way to start, design is not a linear process. It depends on the designer and the context and what you want the learners to achieve of course!

Helen Guerin
5:39pm 26 January 2013 (Edited 5:40pm 26 January 2013)


Starting Point: I try to start at the end, with what the learner should know or be able to do following the learning intervention. Time and resource constraints will of course have an impact on the final design.

Ideas: I try to get inspiration from learners, designers, theory, practice and the work of colleages and innovators in the field.

Communication: Once I fully understand what I am trying to achieve and why, I can easily communicate it to others using narratives, images, metaphors. However, it can sometimes take me a while to fully understand it, as I'm a global learner and have to see the big picture before I can understand its various parts.

Gráinne Conole
11:49am 27 January 2013


Helen like your approach to communicating. Using different representations of the design helps foreground different aspects of the design. This is very much at the heart of the Conceptual Learning Designs you are exploring this week! I also like the kinds of visual representations that are used with Pedagogical Patterns such as the jigsaw Ped. Pattern really shows what the stages of the design are.

David Jennings
4:54pm 27 January 2013


Here are my answers -- possibly they only make sense in the context of my new project, which isn't a course.

Which part/s of the design do you usually think about first when you begin a new learning design? Do you start with — the learners, the technology, learning approach, previous designs, resource constraints, time constraints, institutional strategy, or…?

Firstly we think of content — what we want to say.

Then we think of learners, or, more commonly, readers — people whose goals we wish to support, with an emphasis on particular attitudes or behaviour we seek to influence.

Everything else is an afterthought.

Where do your ideas originate? From colleagues, from conferences or events, from student data or feedback, from personal experience, from case studies, or …?

The risk is that most ideas are constrained by habit and tacit expectations formed by past experience of similar endeavours.

Genuinely fresh ideas come from random and unpredictable sources.

The balance between the first of these (tradition) and the second (serious innovation, beyond just tinkering) is set differently according to the pressures of the context.

What difficulties do you encounter when trying to describe your design ideas to colleagues or to yourself?

When the ideas are traditional, you don’t encounter a great deal of difficulties. You can speak, write or draw in shorthand, and everyone still gets it, because they know the patterns well enough to fill in the unspoken blanks. It’s comfortable, quick and largely frictionless.

New ideas invariably raise hackles because they go against the grain of expectations.

Gráinne Conole
10:12am 29 January 2013


Totally agree with you re danger of design being based on 'habit and tacit expectations formed by past experience'

The Conceptual Learning Designs you are exploring are designed to try and help practititoners thik differently and more creatively. To think beyond content to the activities and the ultimate learner experience. 

Ida Brandão
4:07pm 29 January 2013 (Edited 4:13pm 29 January 2013)


I suppose the context determines the approach and then, the learners needs.

I can think of two different contexts, from my recent experience, having in mind the same target learners (SEN teachers).

1. An online course, at national level,  to respond to teachers needs to build communication tables for pupils with learning and communication disabilities. Specific software was recommended and teachers needed to use and produce learning materials for their pupils with this symbol software.

In this case, the identification of needs came from the field, a network of ICT Centres for special needs that support SEN teachers, providing information and training to their peers. The online course was the result of teamwork.

2. An online course on «Inclusion and Technology», in the context of an european project with several country partners, with different languages, with different SEN policies, with different target groups, with different delivery modalities (self-study / tutor).

In this case, EU partners agreed on learning outcomes and a course structure that might be of common interest to teachers dealing with SEN pupils.

Having developed an english version of the online course, each partner had the flexibility to adapt it to national contexts, adapt the structure, use different VLE, replacing resources for national ones, adapting activities, choosing the delivery mode. The only condition was to have some form of validation, feedback from participants on the adequacy of the training and eventual improvements. Most adopted an evaluation  questionnaire developed in Moodle.

As I don't think «one fits all» and there's a dynamic evolution, the important is to be flexible and have the freedom to adapt according to the context, the outcomes to reach, the target group, the best and updated resources that pop up everyday in the Internet, the feedback from the participants.

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