SAT: Making it Happen’, Supporting or Engendering Open Academic Practice using Jorum Open Educational Resources (OERs) within a manufacturing..(cont.)(Avril Sweeney)

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Dr Simon Ball
7 February 2014

Making it Happen’, Supporting or Engendering Open Academic Practice using Jorum Open Educational Resources (OERs) within a manufacturing environment (using a manufacturing environment as a case study).

Abstract
The content within this presentation is aimed at anyone interested in engendering open academic practice outside of academia . The title of this presentation is ‘Making it Happen’, Supporting or Engendering Open Academic Practice using Jorum Open Educational Resources (OERs) within a manufacturing environment (using a manufacturing environment as a case study). The theme of the presentation is implementation. What the theme of implementation means in terms of the conference theme is that audience members will receive a pilot. The intention of the pilot is to demonstrate to audience members a combination of practical and theoretical ways by which to Support or Engender Open Academic Practice. Paraphrasing Mackness (2013), Open Academic Practice Is achieved by sharing, being social, connecting, networking , working in communities of practice, communicating, building relationships , using technology , publishing, and having a belief in social learning theories.
What audience members can expect to learn is the following.
• Some key definitions for example, Open Educational Resource (OER), Open Academic Practice and Jorum.
• Ways in which Jorum has engendered my open academic practice.
• The impact on practice of using Jorum (from practical User Stories within Jorum).
• Theoretical definitions of socio-technical theory, including principles, concepts and factors .
• How to engender open academic practice outside of academia (a model or a framework) for engendering open academic practice.
• A casestudy of organisational change as a result of open knowledge management approaches to engendering open academic practice outside of academia.
• A Framework/Model for organisational change –socio-technical model.
• That there is a gap in research around engendering open academic practice outside of academia.
One of the reasons that the presenter chose the topic was that she observed in some of the tutor group forums within Module H818 that some students (including the presenter herself) were not familiar with Jorum. This situation set the seed in the presenters mind to proceed to find out the features and affordances of Jorum and how it could engender open academic practice and in what context . Why the presenter chose to research Jorum was for the reason that the presenter works in a manufacturing environment. The presenter was interested to find out for herself if Jorum could engender open academic in a manufacturing environment.
To start with, the research approach that the presenter took to the topic was to begin with finding out how to log on to Jorum to get an understanding of how it could engender open academic practice. The next practical step in the research process that the presenter took was to go through the tabs within Jorum to search for positive User stories related to Engendering Open Academic practice http://www.jorum.ac.uk/about-us/user-stories.
After that, the presenter took a practical approach, developing and depositing an open educational resource within Jorum. The next step that the presenter took was to share the links to her Open Educational Resource http://find.jorum.ac.uk/find/?utf8=✓&q=avril. The presenter deposited her open educational resource Following on from this the presenter shared statistics downloaded from Jorum, based on the OER deposit. Then the presenter shared the statistics in the H818 tutor group forums. In this presentation the presenter has shared evidence of her own primary data collection using Jorum .
While literature review was undertaken to source primary and secondary sources of information (data, research , surveys, case studies) of how Jorum supports or engenders open academic practice in manufacturing organisations, surprisingly , the presenter was unable to locate existing literature /evidence specifically related to how Jorum could engender open academic practice in manufacturing organisations. For this reason the presenter reverted to presenting her own evidence using herself as a case study. The presenter used Jorum discovering that personally for her Jorum had engendered a change in her in terms of open academic practice . This presentation provides evidence from personal perspective on how to engender open academic practice using jorum, and from a User stories perspective http://www.jorum.ac.uk/about-us/user-stories.
This presentation looks at what theoretical perspectives and what a case study examples tell us about the topic of engendering open academic practice. This presentation takes into consideration different perspectives on engendering open academic practice.
The types of findings that are presented in this presentation are a combination of personal findings (using Jorum and doing personal research around the topic title) along with theoretical findings based on literature review. The key message within the presentation is that engendering open academic practice outside of academia requires a belief in socio-technical systems theory.
Within my presentation I have inserted my contact details. The aim of this approach is to continue to network on line with anyone interested in engendering open academic practice outside of academia (in particular in manufacturing organisations). Audience members can connect with me during and after the conference on face book, twitter, slide share, YouTube and linked in.
The potential value of my research for anyone interested in engendering open academic practice might be that it could be used as trigger for anyone interested in engendering open academic practice using Jorum to connect with or partner with academia in order to gain expert insights into theoretical ways/partnerships that can be built upon to engender open academic practice.
Keywords essential to this topic: OER, Open Educational Resources, Jorum, Supporting, Engendering, Open Academic Practice.





Potential resources for the presentation (not all inclusive full references list to be confirmed in the presentation).
Atkins, D., Brown, J. and Hammond, A. (2007) A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities. Report to The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. http://www.hewlett.org/uploads/files/ReviewoftheOERMovement.pdf
Baraniuk, R. (2012) Open education: One perfect storm yields three revolutions. Visiones de Telefónica. Paper Nº V, 2012. http://visionesdetelefonica.cl/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/05-Richard-Baraniuk-Open-education.pdf
Hylén, J. (undated) Open Educational Resources: Opportunities and Challenges. Report to The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. http://library.oum.edu.my/oumlib/sites/default/files/file_attachments/odl-resources/386010/oer-opportunities.pdf
Jorum Open Educational Repository (2013) http://www.jorum.ac.uk/about-us/user-stories
Mackness, J: (2013) ‘Open Academic Practice in Higher Education’, First Steps in Learning and Teaching in HE, May 15th 2013 (Blog). Available at http://jennymackness.wordpress.com/2013/05/18/open-academic-practice-how-open-are-you/
T-C. (2011) Open Education and the Creative Economy: Global perspectives and comparative analysis. University of Illinois PhD Thesis. https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/29677/Liu_Tze-Chang.pdf?sequence=1
Winn, J. (2011) Open Education: From the Freedom of Things To The Freedom Of People. In Neary, M., Stevenson, H. and Bell, L. (2011) Towards Teaching in Public: Reshaping the Modern University. Continuum. http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/4064/1/Winn_OER_Book_Chapter_2012_-_proof.pdf


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Jonathan Vernon
11:35pm 12 February 2014


I like the look of Jorum. I think its important to recognise that a platform such as this might facilitate social learning, but for it to work the irganisation needs to be social by practice, something that probably comes from the top and is part of the company's philosophy. And then to state the obvious, does it save money or create efficiencies?

Avril sweeney
11:28am 13 February 2014


some parts of orgs are social when it comes to R+D networking etc is a priority while other areas of an organisation maybe focussed on technical elements - but how to gather together the whole organisation to be socio-technical - Jorum is a sociotechnical system that could be used as a tool to guide organisaitons in how to be social?

 

Nicola Morris
9:50pm 14 February 2014


Avril, have you come across Seeley Brown and Duguid's work on networks of practice? ( Knowledge and organisation:a social practice perspective)? This gives some useful ideas as to how you may be able to tackle some of the internal barriers to openness. I agree with Johnaton that they need to be tackled before you look externally.

Jonathan Vernon
5:18am 15 February 2014 (Edited 5:19am 15 February 2014)


The Tze-Chang Liu' paper on creativity on 'Open Education and the Creative Economy' is a fascinating find. It's a hefty read so I'll come back once I've got through it. It relates to something I was saying to Sian in relation to MOOCs in China and cultural differences - they want what they say we have in this country 'a creative industry'. Why are we such a 'creative country' - designers, directors, authors, fashion, advertising, TV ... I believe growing up with the BBC is a hugely important differentiator. I miss it whenever I have lived abroad (France and US). A single word says it for me and has had me questioning whether it is at all possible online 'nurture'. The fledgling creative needs to be nurtured - guided and shown the way forward in a non-too prescriptive way. To nurture online required an intimacy and professionalism that is very one-to-one. Creative people so often talk of a wonderful teacher or tutor that they had. This can occur online where 'likeminds' find and support eachother. Something that I believe was easier to do a decade ago before the Web become indundated, overly commercialised and at times interfering and oppressive. I ought to exploit the fact that I was blogging in 1999 and wrote about those early years extensively - innocent, collaborative, experimental ... 

Michelle Bourgein
8:59am 15 February 2014


I'm looking forward to your presentation today. There is some overlap between us and I am really interested to hear your experiences. Good luck today

Avril sweeney
5:25pm 15 February 2014


Hi Michelle many thanks. Avril

Dr Simon Ball
7:35pm 15 February 2014


Following the live presentations, we asked each speaker to respond to questions posed by audience members. In the short time available, it was not possible to put all of the questions submitted to the speaker for a response. We asked all speakers if they would respond to the unanswered questions here on Cloudworks. Here are all of the questions asked during the session:

  • I like the look of Jorum. I think its important to recognise that a platform such as
    this might facilitate social learning, but for it to work the irganisation needs to be
    social by practice, something that probably comes from the top and is part of the
    company's philosophy. And then to state the obvious, does it save money or create
    efficiencies?

  • do you have views Avril on which repositories may work best in your setting? Are there any specific industry or trade sector ones?

  • Completely agree with this point - far too little focus on users of OER

  • This raises an interesting point - how open is academia to the outside world in reality? Is it still a bit of a "closed shop"?

  • Are, thinking about it, Quick Response Codes, a manufacturing OER? The penny just dropped, but these things were created by a Toyota distributor to support parts manufacture ... just an example. There must be others but many manufactureres will want to get money out of their development.

Avril sweeney
1:55pm 16 February 2014


I like the look of Jorum. I think its important to recognise that a platform such as this might facilitate social learning, but for it to work the irganisation needs to be social by practice, something that probably comes from the top and is part of the company's philosophy. And then to state the obvious, does it save money or create efficiencies?

Response from Avril:

I looked for the term 'social by practice 'on wikipedia just now. According to wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Practice  Social practice is a theory within psychology that seeks to determine the link between practice and context within social situations. Emphasized as a commitment to change, social practice occurs in two forms: activity and inquiry. Most often applied within the context of human development, social practice involves knowledge production and the theorization and analysis of both institutional and intervention practices.

My thoughts are that most organisations focus on the bottom line efficiency and production. Human development is way down the line. Production out the door equates to money. Therefore the way I see it is that  in order for social practice to occur it must be embedded at senior leadership level  and then cascaded down through to  teams, project teams etc.  I think Senior Leadership would buy in to social practice if they saw Jorum  and were shown how Jorum supports social practice.

Good Questions  - And then to state the obvious, does it save money or create efficiencies?

Response from Avril:

I think Jorum could save money and create efficiencies. Jorum is linked to academic institutions.Jorum has the potential to show for example manufacturing organisations how to be social in their practices using a partnership approach with academic environments such as Jorum?.

This article http://journals.akoaotearoa.ac.nz/index.php/JOFDL/article/view/64/46 called extending the Territory: From Open Educational Resources to Open Educational Practices - on Page 7-8 looks at a framework for supporting open educational practices. 

'The above considerations emphasise that current OER initiatives need to extend the understanding of OER—with the concepts of quality and innovation—into the concept of OEP, where OER are used in innovative educational scenarios to raise quality. Research and experiences show that the uptake of OER demands a culture of sharing, valuing innovative and social-network-based forms of learning, and encouraging novel pedagogical models (OPAL, 2011). Existing approaches for fostering the use of OER have made achievements by focusing on building access to resources (e.g., MERLOT, MIT OCW, Stanford iTunes, Openlearn of OUUK, Rice University, Opentrain UNESCO, OER WIKI UNESCO, etc.) and licence models (e.g., creativecommons.org). A lack of trust, limited sharing in institutional cultures, and low acceptance of OER by educators hinder OER use and access. To develop a sustainable pathway for organisations, and for educational professionals and/or learners to grow into their role as open educational practitioners, a model for open educational practice has been developed. Resulting from more than 65 international case studies (http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloudscape/view/2085), we have deduced and described the following dimensions. For each dimension a guiding question and a set of maturity indicators has been developed to facilitate a shift from open resources usage to open educational practices (Table 1)'.

Table 1 -  The OEP model (version for organisations)

 

 

Positioning your organisation in the OEP trajectory 

 

There are currently four models developed and available for four target groups: organisational leaders, policy makers, professionals, and students. All can be downloaded at www.oer-quality.org Positioning your organisation in the OEP trajectory

1. To what extent are you using OER?

2. Do you have a process for creating OER?

3. To what extent are you repurposing OER?

4. To what extent are you sharing OER and OEP?

5. To what extent are you working with open learning architectures? 

Creating a vision of openness and a strategy for OEP in an organisation

1. Do you have a vision for OEP?

2. Do you have strategies and policies for OEP?

3. Do you have a business model in place?

4. Are you involved in any partnership?

5. What is the perceived relevance of OEP? 

Implementing and promoting OEP to transform learning

1. Do you have an intellectual property rights and copyright framework for OER?

2. Do you have incentives and a motivational framework?

3. Is your OEP work aligned with practice?

4. Are your staff committed to OEP and do they have the right mindset and attitudes?

5. Do you have tools to support sharing and exchanging about open educational practices?

6. Do you have quality mechanisms in place?

7. What level of knowledge and skills do teachers have?

8. What level of digital literacy do participants have?

9. Do you have mechanisms in place to support teachers to develop OEP? 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do you have views Avril on which repositories may work best in your setting? Are there any specific industry or trade sector ones?

Response from Avril: My view is that Jorum could work very well in my setting provided that the open athens username and password was removed. This is a restriction and if removed would offer anyone in my organisation the opportunity  to be a contributor of OER's in Jorum. Jorum has plenty of potential and could be embedded in my setting easily as an add on to learning content and as a creative way for all colleagues to create and deposit OER's for sharing with others - academia and other organisations could share and learn  from each other using Jorum. I cannot find any non institutional OER repositories on the internet but there might be some in the Opendoar repository? http://www.opendoar.org/find.php

Completely agree with this point - far too little focus on users of OER

Response from Avril: This article  agrees with the above point http://journals.akoaotearoa.ac.nz/index.php/JOFDL/article/view/64/46 called extending the Territory: From Open Educational Resources to Open Educational Practices.

 'The Open Educational Quality Initiative Report, Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices, came to the conclusion that open educational resources (OER) in higher education institutions are, in principle, available but are not frequently used (OPAL, 2011). The study reveals that individuals are faced with five main barriers when they want to use OER: lack of institutional support; lack of technological tools for sharing and adapting resources; lack of users‘ skills and time; lack of quality or fitness of the resources; and personal issues such as lack of trust and time (ibid). When considering OER the old question seems to gain new relevance: ‗If we build it, will they come?‘ (ASTD & Masie Center, 2001). Four of these five issues relate to a lack of supporting components (i.e., organisational support; a lack of a sharing culture within organisations; lack of skills, quality, trust or time, and skills for adaption). Only one element relates to the availability of technical tools for sharing and adapting resources. None of the barriers relates to accessibility and availability. While the study‘s sample might be subject to self-selection and probably attracted more respondents from OER users, the results reveal an interesting array of barriers which are not, so far, addressed in research. Greater efforts will have to be made in future to understand the personal, organisational'

This raises an interesting point - how open is academia to the outside world in reality? Is it still a bit of a "closed shop"?

Response from Avril:

I would tend to agree with the above point. Using Jorum I have found the Athens username and password acts as a restriction for anyone outside of academia. My presentation provides evidence of this I think.

Are, thinking about it, Quick Response Codes, a manufacturing OER? The penny just dropped, but these things were created by a Toyota distributor to support parts manufacture ... just an example. There must be others but many manufactureres will want to get money out of their development.

Response from Avril: I dont know very much about Quick Response codes but I would be happy to learn more. According to Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QR_code

'The QR code system was invented in 1994 by Denso Wave. Its purpose was to track vehicles during manufacture; it was designed to allow high-speed component scanning.[3] Although initially used for tracking parts in vehicle manufacturing, QR codes now are used in a much broader context, including both commercial tracking applications and convenience-oriented applications aimed at mobile phone users (termed mobile tagging). QR codes may be used to display text to the user, to add a vCard contact to the user's device, to open a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), or to compose an e-mail or text message. Users can generate and print their own QR codes for others to scan and use by visiting one of several paid and free QR code generating sites or apps. It has since become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional barcode.'[4] 

Avril sweeney
3:16pm 16 February 2014


 Avril, have you come across Seeley Brown and Duguid's work on networks of practice?   ( Knowledge and organisation:a social practice perspective)? This gives some useful ideas as to how you may be able to tackle some of the internal barriers to openness. I agree with Johnaton that they need to be tackled before you look externally

Hi Nicola, I had a quick scan through wikipedia for Seeley Brown and Duguid's work on networks of practice?   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_of_practice. I looks networks of practice, and communites of practice both face to face and online  are ways by which to share learning as people learn from each other by apprenticeship type learning?

I would agree with you that tackling internal barriers to openness should be the first port of call. Tackling the culture of the organisation is the first port of call to see how open it is to change and new practices? I guess looking at is the culture stagnant or flexible and changing? Some of the barriers to openness  include people with mindsets that are not open to change or being social or sharing? Therefore that culture would need to be change in order to engender open academic practice. I think what COX is saying is that the culture of an organisation is very much produced by the people within it and the types of communities of practice?

This paper by Cox  http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wbs/conf/olkc/archive/oklc5/papers/e-4_cox.pdf looks at new models of learning. ( Table 1 The new model of learning proposed in situated learning- Pg. 3) and the new model includes,  learning in situ,  by observation (therefore social), by peripheral  participation, learning from others (therefore social), informal driven by the task(through elements of apprenticeship are formal), learning is as much about understanding  how to behave as what to do, and is an identity change)

'Thus a surface reading would see a community of practice as a unified, neatly

bounded group, whereas what is intended is a more subtle concept. Community of

practice is never defined precisely (Lave and Wenger 1991: 42). But it is not a “primordial

culture sharing entity” (98); those involved have different interests and viewpoints. It is not

a sub-culture. Use of the term community does not “imply necessarily co-presence, a welldefined, identifiable group or socially visible boundaries” (98), rather it is “participation in an activity system about which participants share understandings concerning what they

are doing and what that means for their lives and for their communities” (98)' (COX P. 3)

'As Gherardi, Nicolini and Odela (1998: 279) argue:

Referring to a community of practice is not a way to postulate the existence of a

new informal grouping or social system within the organisation, but is a way to

emphasize that every practice is dependent on social processes through which it is

sustained and perpetuated, and that learning takes place through the engagement

in that practice'. (COX. P. 4)

 

 

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