WED: Motivating Learners: Using video for Learning and Teaching (Lesley Hamilton)

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Lesley Hamilton
7 January 2016

Theme: Innovation  |  Format:Multimedia/Demonstration

In this presentation an innovative, interactive tool guide entitled “Motivating learners: using video for learning and teaching” will be demonstrated. This interactive tool guide, developed as an open educational resource and licenced using Creative Commons will enable and empower tutors to create different types of video. The resource has been designed and developed using the Xerte Online Toolkit (version 3) to incorporate a scenario based approach which aligns learning goals to the type of video which is best for achieving that particular learning goal. Furthermore, this resource is designed to facilitate workshops as part of either a blended or e-learning short course or as a stand-a-lone reference tool guide.

In recent years we have seen a marked rise in the use of video in education.  Salman Khan’s video ‘Let’s use video to reinvent education’ (Khan, 2011) describes how video can make a difference in teaching and learning whilst many university websites also list the pedagogical benefits (e.g. n.d. 2015a, Schols, 2009). If you are looking for ideas, then Phil Vincent’s blog article (2015) lists 10 ideas for using video, including:

  • Recording content for the ‘flipped’ classroom model
  • Recording interviews
  • Recording introductions to courses
  • Etc.

In his video, Khan (2011) promotes the use of the flipped classroom model (n.d. 2015b) where students can review lecture content at their own pace. This frees up time in class so that it can be used more actively to explore the subject more deeply. By facilitating video to utilise the benefits of the ‘flipped’ classroom model, pedagogically learners can employ learning strategies that are active rather than passive. That allow for learning in a social context (Brown etal., 1989) as well as a situated context (Lave, J. and Wenger, E., 1991).

Anecdotally, tutors within my institution have often stated that they wish to incorporate video use within their course but don’t know where to start. They often quote the following options as barriers to their use of video within their courses:

  • No time to learn how to record video and use editing software
  • They don’t know where and how to use video within their courses to best effect
  • They worry about the quality of the video

In reality, however, the prevalence of video capture devices such as webcams, Smart phones, tablets and flip cameras means that anyone with little or no experience of video recording can record good quality video. Moreover, recording/editing software available on desktops as well as tablets have been designed to be more intuitive giving the user more options than before to apply edits and effects such as quiz questions and annotations.

To alleviate these barriers and possible recording set-ups for particular situations, the Xerte Learning object produced will contain within it the following project outputs: 

  • A scenario based pedagogical framework which will help tutors select their learning goal and view suggested video options and ideas to achieved that goal
  • Workflow guidance with ‘how to’ video tutorials
  • IPR/Copyright signposting
  • Accessibility guides

 

References

Brown, J.S., Collins, A. and Duguid, P. (1989) ‘Situated cognition and the culture of learning’, Educational Researcher, vol.18, no.1, pp.32–42 [Online] Available: http://www.jstor.org.libezproxy.open.ac.uk/stable/1176008  (Accessed 10 December 2010).

Khan, S. (2011) Let’s use video to reinvent education. TED [Online] Available: http://www.ted.com/talks/salman_khan_let_s_use_video_to_reinvent_education (Accessed: 2 January 2016)

Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

n.d. (2015a) Pedagogical benefits. The University of Queensland, Australia [Online] Available: http://www.uq.edu.au/teach/video-teach-learn/ped-benefits.html (Accessed: 2 January 2016)

n.d. (2015b) “Flipping” a class. [Online – website] The University of Texas at Austin Learning Sciences. Available: https://learningsciences.utexas.edu/teaching/flipping-a-class (Accessed: 3 January 2016)

Schols, M. (2009) Potential Pedagogical Benefits and Limitations of Multimedia Integrated Desktop Video Conferencing Technology for Synchronous Learning. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning. Vol. 2(4), pp 4-8 [Online] Available: http://online-journals.org/index.php/i-jac/article/view/985/1132 (Accessed: 3 January 2016)

Phil Vincent (2015) 10 Ways to Use Video in Your Teaching [Blog] Available: http://blog.yorksj.ac.uk/moodle/2015/10/16/10-ways-to-use-video-in-your-teaching/

 

Extra content

Moodle Tool Guide

Moodle Tool Guide for Teachers (PDF) - adapted for UWs by @lahamilton32

Lesley Hamilton
11:27 on 11 February 2016 (Edited 11:38 on 11 February 2016)

Resources under development

Presentation Slides

Motivating Learners: Using video for learning and teaching from lah32

Lesley Hamilton
22:18 on 24 February 2016 (Edited 10:09 on 1 March 2016)

Multimedia Poster

Motivating Learners: Using video for Learning and Teaching

Theme: Innovation | Format: Multimedia/Demonstration

Lesley Hamilton
22:25 on 24 February 2016

Embedded Content

Contribute

Chris Gray
8:35pm 21 January 2016


Lesley

I think this is a really good project that looks at how to challenge current practice of only having limited use of video in learning content. With the amount of video creation and editing tools available then it should be used more.

Video can readily capture a learner's attention and reinforce learning.  Will one of the barriers that you might consider include the technical issues of file size, hosting and streaming and limitations imposed on tutors by IT managers? I'm not sure how much of an issue this is, but expect there may be some institutions who are not as open or well informed on how best to utilise video within learning content, with maybe the odd zealous IT manager.

Possibly a large barrier to having a visual presence within learning material for tutors is their performance which has been captured for ever effectively. Few people are given training in how to perform in front of a camera and whilst you have mentioned about people not having to worry about the quality of the video, I wonder if it's also to do with their (perceived) performance and the permanence of it once it is 'out there' in cyberspace.

I see you touch on flipped classroom as well, which is something Maxine is focussing on during her Saturday presentation. Has consideration been given to students creating video of themselves providing analysis of their understanding of some subject matter, or even to create reflective thought for a tutor prior to a flipped classroom session, in effect a double flip?

Elizabeth Frost
6:26pm 31 January 2016


Hi Lesley

This is another good project that I would be interested in.  We are looking at IRIS software for filming lessons and then uploading onto our VLE for future use by the students.  I don't know a great deal about this yet but I'm hoping that after we have the demonstration I will be able to evaluate whether or not it will be a useful tool for us. We have quite a few students who struggle to enter the classroom environment and recorded lessons would be invaluable for them as they can take part in the lessons but in a more comfortable environment. 

Most of us hyperlink to Youtube from PPT at some stage in our lessons, perhaps this could be an opportunity for you to upload some of your pre-recorded segments as an experiment.

I agree with Chris that lecturers aren't taught how to 'perform' in front of the camera and there may be a natural distrust of doing this.  I remember back to C&G 730 days when I was filmed doing my micro-teach.  It was horrific, new to teaching and now they wanted to film me!  I'm not sure if this still happens but how do you think you would get over this relutance?

I also agree with Chris that we are sometimes held to ransom by our IT Departments.  Priorities do not always match.

It seems as though your colleagues have highlighted one of the main barriers to video recordings as being time.  In today's climate of having such high contact hours it is difficult to set time aside for the practicalities.  Perhaps your employers would allow a reduction in a nominated member of staff's hours to help set this up as the flipped classroom model would really benefit all.

Wendy Maples
3:35pm 5 February 2016


Hi Lesley,

I have had a look at Xerte and see that it covers a large span of technologies, with, I think, the intention of integration into a blended learning experience? I found it difficult to unpick what resources were available to do what -- so I am already impressed that you have located the toolkit you needed from the Xerte website. Am I right in thinking you are creating a video resource about creating video resources?

For my conference poster, I learned an open-source video mash-up software (which then crashed -- pre-Xmas disaster), so then had to quickly learn iMovie to salvage the work/time I had put in. I easily spent 70+ hours creating a 3 minute video (including learning and losing time) and I used what was meant to be 'easy-to-master' technology. I'd say I have a reasonable (not great, but reasonable) understanding of digital technologies. So, I think your colleagues' comments re time is important! The other thing I wondered about is the recording of lectures in general. While I 'get' that this can be a useful way of implementing a flipped classroom, I also know that recorded lectures can be dull as dishwater. Additionally, if they are recorded without an audience, they lack the feel of something interactive -- unless the lecturer is an especially good performer. What do you think would help overcome these potential difficulties? (And, a bit of an aside, but do you think recording lectures might lead to some lecturers emphasising style over content?) I've done a few to-camera pieces (and some radio) and I know that I tend to err on the side of simplification in ways I might not do if I had an audience in front of me -- when know I can 'risk' challenging them, because I can 'see' if they 'get it'.

I know you can't address all potential problems, of course -- but I would be interested to know whether these are issues you/your colleagues have come up against. I am looking forward v v much to seeing your interactive tool guide! Such an interesting project!

Lesley Hamilton
10:36pm 9 February 2016 (Edited 11:05pm 9 February 2016)


Hi Wendy,

I'm using Xerte as the medium in which to create an OER that will be used by tutors to help them create and/or use video in their teaching and learning. I am using Xerte to develop a toolkit kit that will aid tutors to identify what type/format of video that will best help them achieve a specific learning goal. Once tutors have identified their learning goal and the type of video then they will be directed to some options for creating, developing and producing their video or simply how to embed a YouTube video in Moodle.

I absolutely agree that lecture capture is 'boring' as a resource. Evidence shows that students only access 60 minutes lectures to revise specific key points, i.e. they will move the playbar to the point that they want to listen to again. In this instance - I think it still has a place.

I regards to using video for blended learning or as part of flipped classroom model then you would be cutting 60 minutes in smaller less than 10 minute videos or even less. Some even suggest making videos no more than 3-5 minutes in length - so that the time remains within our concentration span.

Interestingly - feedback that I've read suggests that students are not interested in watching lecturers perform. They are interested in viewing the slides and hearing the explanation. My insitution uses the lecture capture system Camstasia Relay - this records the screen and the audio only. Having said that the same system can be used to record screencasts via a webcam - which is increasingly being done. In these instances video is being recorded for short peices, e.g. to welcome students to the module, to explain the assignment brief, provide feedback. More like short conversational pieces.

Lesley Hamilton
10:46pm 9 February 2016


Hi Chris,

Video within a VLE is an issue but one that is addressed by using streaming servers which may be internal or external to an institution.

It's interesting that both you, Elizabeth and Wendy have all mentioned 'performance' as a potential barrier. I think it is to a degree. However, most short pieces of video are being recorded at the desktop computer - where I've tended to focus on tips for preparing to record and setting up the station - if you are recording your computer screen then choose a bland wallpaper, make sure you close all applications especially email - you don't want pop-ups appearing as you record and make sure the surface behind you hasn't got a piece of furniture sticking out the top of your head.

You are all correct - I think some tips regarding speed of speech, looking at the camera, using a teleprompter would also be useful. People do tend to be self-consious - they don't like to watcth themselves on video and they also don't like the sound of their voice.

Lesley Hamilton
11:05pm 9 February 2016 (Edited 11:05pm 9 February 2016)


Hi Elizabeth,

"It seems as though your colleagues have highlighted one of the main barriers to video recordings as being time.  In today's climate of having such high contact hours it is difficult to set time aside for the practicalities.  Perhaps your employers would allow a reduction in a nominated member of staff's hours to help set this up as the flipped classroom model would really benefit all."

Good idea - we have made several suggestions like this, including 'short-term' secondments (1 day per week) to my department for the duration of the development of a blended learning or online distance learning module. However, none of our suggestions have came to fruition. Although there is a willingness, there just isn't enough human resources to accomodate the reduction in contact time or other responsibilities.

I like the flipped classroom model, and the tutors that I'm working with and who are moving in that direction have already fedback how much more meaningful the time they have in class with students. It is much more active and participatory.

What we are seeing is that adoption is increasing as the early adopters talk about and disseminate their experiences. I've seen me developing a resource and embedding it within our VLE in a module site - I know its' successful when I start getting emails from staff asking if they could have that resource in their module site too.

Elaine Dalloway
12:46pm 11 February 2016


Hi Lesley

I'd like to use more video in the resources I put together but have come across the same issues/fears from teaching staff.

I think a great feature of some of the MOOCs that I've participated in is the use of video, even just to introduce the lecturer, it helps pull you in and creates a bond.  Once I've met the tutor I feel I have to finish the course!

Some of the best video I've been provided with was a set of interviews produced simply with a mobile phone - very effective and very natural - they certainly improved the learning resource they were embedded in.

Looking forward to your presentation.

Elaine

Kiran Gawali
7:08pm 11 February 2016


Hi Lesley, Just sharing that we also have lectures being recorded and as you pointed out students tend to be interested in audio and slides rather than the lecturer. Recently we support staff options of creating narrated powerpoints, they just do a short snippet of video to say hello and goodbye , record audio narrating their slides on their laptops or with us. We package it together and upload it before the lecture in the VLE. In their actual lecture they use the time to have a more seminar like interactive session in which students can ask questions on the narrated PowerPoint. Whilst we are monitoring this and haven't got enough longitudinal data , I believe this style of delivery will improve student appreciation, use of resources. I also think keeping videos short is crucial. Microlearning may be a buzz word but I have seen Even with our students how they trend to skip through videos basically fastforwardong to ser around 3-5min of an hour lecture!! So I guess my point is that videos in itself is rather passive and staff may need to be supported to use video in a way that enhanced their teaching.

Lesley Hamilton
7:34pm 11 February 2016


Hi Kiran,

Thank you for your comments and sharing how you support staff. I agree with you in that staff not only need support in terms of using the technology but also how best to integrate the use of technology within their teaching - and I'll hopefully address that in my presentation. I think it's important that we are fitting the technology to the teaching and not the other way round, i.e. it's the underpinning pedagogical benefits that shoud drive the choices made when selecting and implementing technology.

 

Dr Susan Morris
10:33pm 16 February 2016


  • No time to learn how to record video and use editing software
  • They don’t know where and how to use video within their courses to best effect
  • They worry about the quality of the video

Hello Lesley, 

This is a  strong solution to the barriers facing teachers wishing to use accessible video.  Video has such strong value within pedagogical design. Teachers tend to be able to 'feel' the tangible difference it makes to their subjects and in motivating learners. The technical side can be daunting. 

I would argue that the technical when expressed as 'worry about quality' is about the length of time for editing a video.  This should not be underestimated although shortcuts in the Moodleguide would be helpful. 

Your case study approach is good.  Scenario based intervention strong and some validation of the learning would complete the circle with feedback.

I look forward to hearing more about future plans and developments.  

Best wishes, Susan

Dr Simon Ball
6:11pm 17 February 2016


Hi Lesley

Here is a summary of the questions/comments from your presentation - please respond as you wish:

  • Apparentley the younger generation is not googling but YouTubing it...
    can't remember the reference
  • YouTube is defo seen as ed resource (formal-informal). I still read instructions -- friends' kids all just go to You Tube for 'how tos'
  • and having their own vimeo of projects. Go Pro has made an impact on outdoors learning
  • I wonder if there is relevant material in media literacy? That would be more for learners than teachers....
  • Wonder whether the YouTube presentation of options allows users to easily find content uploaded by particular presenters and see the stuff that is popular (viewing metrics). ON google searches this is not so evident.
  • Videos take a long time to edit and package- will you be supporting staff on this
  • So are these mostly technical concerns from colleagues?

Lesley Hamilton
9:44pm 25 February 2016


Googling v YouTubing - yes I have noticed at times that I too use the term 'YouTube that' and you find '??' instead of saying 'use Google to find ??'. I have tried to search for evidence that appears to back this up. I've asked around my colleagues. Although they can;t recall the evidence they to acknowledge (with a little surprise as it hasn't been pointed out to them) that they took are referring others to check YouTube for information on a particular subject.

I suspect too that the rise of the 'professional' video bloggers are playing a part in this. Teenagers in particular appear to be watching/following certain individuals as others watch soaps on TV.

YouTube is excellent for 'how to's?  From changing the valve in your shower to how to use advanced variables in Adobe Captivate. However, when these videos are found, I wonder how many do you watch until you watch one through to the end. In other words, I find that I watch these types of video critically or as I watch them, I critically appraise them - just like I would critically appraise a journal article. Who made the video, when was the video made, the quality of the visual and the audio, the presentation style etc.

The rise of Smartphones has put into the hands of the 'all', the ability to record video. In doing so I beleive that video will become more prominent in education, not just as a broadcast tool but also as an assessment tool. In teaching training the video recording of 'micro-lectures' is commonplace. The video can then be reviewed, discussed and used for reflection.

As the use of video grows, then support for it's use will also be required. Support in terms of both tutors and students but also in terms of the IT infrastructure needed to support video (e.g. storage, streaming, internet bandwidth). Whether that support is within the walls of the institution or outwith via web services such as YouTube and Vimeo is a strategic decision that will be taken by inidividual institutions.

 

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