SAT: A Flipped Classroom on Flipped Classrooms (Maxine Armstrong)

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Maxine Armstrong
12 January 2016

So you currently teach healthcare practitioners within higher education and you are wondering should you be flipping your teaching? But you are unsure about how to do it, what is involved and even what exactly is flipped learning.

Essentially, a flipped classroom is where the homework component comes before the class or lecture, but it encompasses a number of different approaches (Educause, 2012, p.1). Flipped classrooms are not new, but as a learning model it has become more widespread in recent years, initially within the school sector, but also in higher further education, due to the proliferation of digital media (JISC, 2015). 

At the conference I will discuss how a learning activity is being implemented that uses a flipped learning approach to inform and promote discussion on the phenomenon of flipped classrooms. The learning activity provides online multimedia resources prior to attending at a workshop, and is aimed at educators of healthcare practitioners. However, the learning activity has been informed by research from different disciplines, so that it can be more widely applied.

Although the focus of the presentation will be on the online resources, their impact on the workshop will also be discussed as they are intrinsically linked. An explanation of how the tasks map to the learning objectives will be provided.

The online resources for the learning activity include a variety of digital media. After a brief introductory video the participants are asked to complete a short anonymous survey using Google Form, to gauge their attitudes to flipped classrooms before they review the remaining content. This survey is anonymous and the results and comments will be used within the workshop to promote discussion. The survey will be made available before the conference so that it can be used in the presentation to demonstrate the range of concerns and issues of interests to conference attendees.

There will be an overview of some of the short five-minute videos that introduce each issue, within the presentation. The videos are deliberately bite-sized so that they can become an online repository for participants to review after the workshop. The issues will cover different factors that influence flipped classrooms, such as, the pedagogical advantages and challenges, digital media’s influence on learning design, procurement of hardware and software applications, legal and copyright requirements and adhesion to institutional policies. Technical development will also be considered, for both academic and support staff. 

Finally a planning template, based on an example by Gilroy, et al. (2015, p.11), will be demonstrated that the workshop participants can use to design how they would flip their own teaching. These plans will be an opportunity for the workshop participants to discuss and reflect on their understanding of flipped classrooms and how they can apply their new knowledge in practice.

There is still uncertainty and confusion within the educational community over exactly what flipped classrooms are and whether they can they make a significant difference to student learning, therefore I am hoping for a lively discussion after my presentation.

References

Educause (2012) 7 Things you should know about Flipped Classrooms, Educause Learning Initiative, [online]. Available at https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7081.pdf (accessed 8 January 2016).

Gilboy, MB., Heinerichs, S., and Pazzaglai, G. (2015) Enhancing Student Engagement Using the Flipped Classroom, Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, vol. 47, Issue 1, pp. 109-114 [online]. Available at http://www.sciencedirect.com.libezproxy.open.ac.uk/science/article/pii/S1499404614006381 (accessed 11 November 2015).

Jisc (2015) Flipped Learning, InfoKit: Using Digital Media in new learning models (Flipped and Blended Learning), Jisc Digital Media [online]. Available at http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/infokit/models-of-learning/flipped-learning (accessed 13 November 2025).

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Maxine Armstrong
5:00pm 14 January 2016 (Edited 5:01pm 14 January 2016)


Please spend a few moments completing my Flipped Classroom Survey for #H818. http://goo.gl/forms/MefTs3xHNq

Anita Houghton
10:09am 16 January 2016


Hi Maxine

I have completed your questionnaire.

Just a few thoughts, which you may have already considered but hopefully will help.   

Do  you consider what we do in the open Uni.  a flipped approach?   We read the background and then some text and then the activity comes next?

I came across this on twitter and thought it may be interesting and relevant to you. 

http://www.teachthought.com/pedagogy/5-challenges-we-overcame-moving-to-a-flipped-staff-meeting/

I personally hate being put on the spot in face to face sessions and much prefer to have some preparation time (this goes for meetings as well).   I can input so much more once I have had time to digest and ponder new material.

I consider to some degree that the flipped approach goes back to organisation culture and also the confidence of the tutor.      In the context of meetings, if you don’t want lively collaboration then why would you give the time for people to ponder and come to the meeting prepared for discussions?   Sometimes meetings are just to cascade information which has already been decided.     

I also used to try and encourage all tutors to put their workshop materials on moodle before their workshops.  I often got the same negative response,  there was a fear that the candidates wouldn’t attend the workshop if they had access to the resources before hand.     This adds another question into the perceived value of workshop sessions for work-based learners – but a whole different debate. 

Anita. 

Anna Orridge
3:34pm 17 January 2016


Hi Maxine,

I tried the flipped classroom approach a few times and found that it worked very well with mature, motivated students. You've probably seen it before, but thought I'd share this article from The Guardian about it: http://www.theguardian.com/higher-education-network/2015/nov/25/will-video-kill-the-lecturing-star?CMP=share_btn_tw

The associated Twitter discussion was also very interesting: https://twitter.com/GdnHigherEd/status/673824297220112384

I will now have  a go at your survey!

 

Dave Martin
8:25pm 17 January 2016


Hi Maxine I tried to complete your survey this evening but it would not let me. May just be my connection if no one else is reporting a problem?

Maxine Armstrong
8:44am 18 January 2016


Hi Anita, Thank you for your comment and question. I will try to address it in the conference session. The teachthought article looks interesting, I am finding that the flipped approach is being used more for conferences and meeting. The concern about attendance is one I hope to a cover in the learning activity.

 

Maxine Armstrong
8:48am 18 January 2016


Hi Anna, Thank you for your comment. I had seen the article, but not the resulting Twitter discussion, I will take a look now.

 

Maxine Armstrong
8:52am 18 January 2016


Hi Dave, Just checked the survey and it still appears to be working, I was able to send a test response and I have had other replies. It is the first time I have used a Google Form so I am not sure of its limits, I was hoping it would be more accessible than other surveys.

Chris Gray
8:50pm 21 January 2016


Maxine

Do you think a flipped classroom type approach can be adapted for work-based vocational learners? At the moment I'm thinking along the lines of how this might be incorporated into delivery programmes for apprenticeship students.

Is there a certain stage or point along a learning journey when introducing a flipped classroom is more appropriate or gains optimum effect?

I really like the idea of using this approach within the vocational sector and look forward to your presentation to gain more insight.

Elizabeth Frost
3:18pm 22 January 2016


Hi Maxine.  I'm afraid I can't complete your questionnaire either.  I've tried a couple of times now but no luck.  Sorry.

Elizabeth

Maxine Armstrong
3:29pm 22 January 2016 (Edited 3:32pm 22 January 2016)


Hi Chris, thank you for your comment. I have not looked at vocational learning, but from what I have seen the flipped classroom is a very flexible approach and I think it would work well. I will reflect upon when in the learning journey it is most appropriate and try to cover it in the conference, it is not something I had considered, but can see it could make a significant difference.

Maxine Armstrong
3:36pm 22 January 2016


Hi Elizabeth, thank you for letting me know about your difficulties with the form. I have now had a few people who have been unable to complete it. I have tried googling the problem but cannot find anything helpful. I used the new google form as the grid questions were better spaced, but I wonder if I would have been better off sticking with the old version.

John Baglow
2:44pm 23 January 2016


I am tempted to choose your presentation as one of the ones I look at in depth. I ignored it at first because the term 'flipped classroom' is bandied about as if it is the answer to all our prayers - but I am now coming round to thinking that, as a teacher-trainer, this would be a great opportunity for me to get to grips with what it means. 

I suppose the term 'flipped classroom' implies that we are talking about classroom-based taeching, rather than online teaching. Or do you think it is just shorthand for reversing the process of the teacher first providing input and the students then doing some work resulting from that input.

I tend to say to my trainee teachers that whenever they are assessing the merits of a particular approach or resource they need to ask themselves how it contributes to their pedagogy i.e. their understanding of the principles they need to put into practice to achieve effective teaching and learning. 

I think you have H.E. teaching in mind. I taech in F.E. so will try to evaluate how your ideas might transfer to F.E.

Maxine Armstrong
5:17pm 23 January 2016


Hi John, thank you for your comment. Your right the term flipped classroom is bandied about a lot.

Flipped classrooms have both elements, online and class-based, so is most like blended learning. My learning activity is aimed at HE practitioners who want to flip a lecture they already use. So I am taking the approach that they are the experts and will know what will work and not work for their subject. I am just providing some things for them to consider if they do want to flip it.

Chris asked about using flipped classrooms with vocational learners. From what I have seen the flipped classroom approach can be applied to different sectors and really took off in schools. So I hope that you find my presentation useful for FE as well.

John Baglow
5:38pm 24 January 2016


Maxine, I have started writing my review of your project so far! I thought it would be a good idea to pass on my points.

  1. Does the title make the content clear? You intend to deliver a session about flipped classrooms by using some of the strategies used in flipping sessions, so that is crystal clear. Would you consider going into just a bit of the theory behind flipped classrooms? What are the arguments in favour of it?
  2. Does the presentation supply what the title suggests? You have mentioned quite a few practical examples of digital resources, which is exactly what the title suggests. Following the online tutorial the other day I would be careful not to be too ambitious about the number of clips you can use - or maybe I'm just being over cautious!
  3. Does it demonstrate understanding? You clearly understand that it is thought by some people that flipping the class is beneficial. Do you think it would be helpful to refer to some of the potential benefits?

tommy ruiz
5:35am 29 January 2016


Hi Maxine, 

 

I am in! 

 

First of all; the questionnaire can be confusing. Maybe it would be a good idea to avoid negatives in the questions. Also, lenghty questions can be difficult to read at times. 

 

There seems to be a lot of questions to answer in just 10 mins! The problem is that they are all interesting! How will you manage that? 

 

I think there are a lot of teachers who would love the idea of using flipped classrooms. However, most think that it would be too much work (something you mentionned). 

 

I am interested in your presentation because from time to time, we have to close the school due to pollution. This is an (THE??) alternative! 

 

Maxine Armstrong
4:43pm 3 February 2016


Hi John, Thank you for your comments, sorry for the delay in getting back to you.

  1. Would you consider going into just a bit of the theory behind flipped classrooms? What are the arguments in favour of it? I will be talking about some of the theory and also what the arguments are for and against using the flipped classroom approach.
  2. I am going to be very careful in my presentation by only using screenshots. I will be very nervous and do not want to contend with network issues by doing a webtour.
  3. Again, I will be talking about the percieved benefits, but I also hope to make clear that it is may not be suitable for every learning experieince and it is up to the lecturer/teacher to decide what approach works best in their situation.

Maxine Armstrong
4:49pm 3 February 2016


Hi Tommy, Thank you for your comments. I use a combination of positive and negative statements to try and ensure that people think about their response, rather than tick all agree or disagree without reading them. The survey was just my starting point so I will briefly look at the responses I have got, but I am not going to cover everythiing. I just wanted to catch a flavour of people thoughts about flipped classrooms. 

The main point I want to get over is that it can be a useful approach to take with many benefits, but it requires a lot of preperation first and may not be suitable for every learning experience.

Maxine Armstrong
4:52pm 3 February 2016


I have now added a link to the learning activity. It is currently still under development, but I will continue to add to it, up to and beyond the conference. I do appreciate your comments, so please let me know what you think!

Dr Simon Ball
10:41am 14 February 2016


Hi Maxine

Here is a summary of the questions/comments from your presentation - please respond as you wish:

  • Innovating pedagogy report 2014 has a nice summary on flipped learning
  • good idea, it's far too often seen as just giving your class a video or book outside of class and then getting them to chat about it while you take a step back.
  • York University use face to face teaching but they have taken a strong flipped learning approach. Including using student created videos to share their understanding of the learning.
    There are many OU modules that use this approach.
  • Why do you think it is so much more common in HE than all the other sectors?
  • I think flipped classrooms have the potential to be more labour intensive due to the higher levels of interactivity and q&a - but in a good way and to the benefit of students' learning
  • Being part of the data makes this presentation more interesting.
  • Difficult to get some FE students to adopt flipped classroom approach.
  • Are the survey results from the UK? I thought there were more examples of flipped classrooms at primary/ secondary level in the US.
  • I had an EU project which used flipped classroom - teachers were nervous that they lost the control and it would effect student progression. It is a massive change in teaching practices.
  • I saw a video as part of H818 I think that showed the most inspirational US classroom that was operating a flipped model - th einteractivty and self-direction was impressive
  • Bill Gates predicted that the Khan Academy and other tools would be a catalyst for moving towards flipped classrooms in the US.
  • Actually - I've found from my research I've found it frees up the teacher to stop 'basic teaching' and actually creatively support students overcome 'tricky topics' barriers to understanding.
  • How do you deal with the problem of students not completing the pre-work and arriving unprepared 'for action'?
  • a) Very important to still begin with the desired learning outcomes! / b) I disagree - we shoudl be thinking about learning progression / learning process. Sometimes learning outcomes can make us 'exam driven'.
  • Does success depend on the subject being taught?
  • But don't flipped classrooms lend themselves really well to using OERs?
  • How would flipped classrooms work in FE?
  • I love the flipped classroom concept and would much rather have the interaction than deliver passive lecturers. Thanks Maxine.
  • Some useful case studies in here - https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/search/site/flipped
  • When technology first came into primary schools, teachers often became so engrossed in the technology that they forgot about what they wanted the students to learn.
  • I recently designed a flipped program for workplace learning in connection with construction
  • If you take away the name of it and just sell it as a pragmatic solution to learning then it's a winner in many environments
  •  there is still a great role for lectures. Hence e.g. TED becoming popular too
  • I've often ended up fiddling with an IWB and forgetting the students gossiping away behind me.
  • I think you need to think carefully about the groups. Some FE students won't be motivated to use flipped classrooms.

Maxine Armstrong
10:47am 15 February 2016


Here is my response to the questions/comments from my presentation:

  • Innovating pedagogy report 2014 has a nice summary on flipped learning - this was one of the first references I looked at, I always find these reports useful.
  • good idea, it's far too often seen as just giving your class a video or book outside of class and then getting them to chat about it while you take a step back.
  • York University use face to face teaching but they have taken a strong flipped learning approach. Including using student created videos to share their understanding of the learning. There are many OU modules that use this approach. – I think student created content is a very interesting approach and so useful.
  • Why do you think it is so much more common in HE than all the other sectors? – I think it helps if the students are self-motivated, but I have found evidence of FL used well in all sectors.
  • I think flipped classrooms have the potential to be more labour intensive due to the higher levels of interactivity and q&a, but in a good way and to the benefit of students' learning – I agree, done well it needs to be well prepared and developed, so very time-consuming.
  • Being part of the data makes this presentation more interesting. – I am glad you felt part of it!
  • Difficult to get some FE students to adopt flipped classroom approach – if your students are not willing to try this approach it won’t work. There must be collaboration between the students and teacher to get the best out of it.
  • Are the survey results from the UK? I thought there were more examples of flipped classrooms at primary/ secondary level in the US – the survey results were from my own survey, but there are a lot of studies in the USA that trial this approach.
  • I had an EU project which used flipped classroom - teachers were nervous that they lost the control and it would effect student progression. It is a massive change in teaching practices – I am surprised that they felt they lost control as the teacher should still be directing the learning, but I agree it is a big change to teaching practice.
  • I saw a video as part of H818 I think that showed the most inspirational US classroom that was operating a flipped model, the interactivity and self-direction was impressive – it can be a very motivated approach if used well and if the students are willing to embrace it.
  • Bill Gates predicted that the Khan Academy and other tools would be a catalyst for moving towards flipped classrooms in the US – Khan Academy does appear to be a big driver in changing attitudes to this approach, for good and bad.
  • Actually - I've found from my research I've found it frees up the teacher to stop 'basic teaching' and actually creatively support students overcome 'tricky topics' barriers to understanding – the studies I have looked at suggest that in the classroom section there is time to reflect on where ‘wrong thinking’ is creeping in and guide students back on track.
  • How do you deal with the problem of students not completing the pre-work and arriving unprepared 'for action'? – some studies use quizzes etc to test students when they first come to the class, but another approach is to show that if they have not prepared then they cannot participate fully in the class discussions.
  • a) Very important to still begin with the desired learning outcomes! / b) I disagree - we should be thinking about learning progression / learning process. Sometimes learning outcomes can make us 'exam driven'. – Although I agree in principle, I find in practice that there is a strong need to ensure students are prepared for exams/assignments.  
  • Does success depend on the subject being taught? – I believe so. Although I have found studies from different disciplines, I think only subject experts can determine if it will work for their students.
  • But don't flipped classrooms lend themselves really well to using OERs? – definitely
  • How would flipped classrooms work in FE? – depends on the students and teacher, it has been used very successfully.
  • I love the flipped classroom concept and would much rather have the interaction than deliver passive lecturers. Thanks Maxine – the collaborative and interactive nature are of this approach are what gives it its strength.
  • Some useful case studies in here: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/search/site/flipped - thank you for this useful search.
  • When technology first came into primary schools, teachers often became so engrossed in the technology that they forgot about what they wanted the students to learn. – I think this is the same in all sectors. The pedagogy should come first and only technology that ENHANCEs the learning should be considered.
  • I recently designed a flipped program for workplace learning in connection with construction – good example of how universal this approach can be!
  • If you take away the name of it and just sell it as a pragmatic solution to learning then it's a winner in many environments – it’s funny how things can be seen as a winner one minute and a passing fad the next!
  • There is still a great role for lectures. Hence e.g. TED becoming popular too – I agree, good lectures done well are so inspiring.
  • I've often ended up fiddling with an IWB and forgetting the students gossiping away behind me – easily done, sometimes technology can interfere with the pedagogy.
  • I think you need to think carefully about the groups. Some FE students won't be motivated to use flipped classrooms – quite agree, you need your students behind this approach.

Thank you to everyone who attended. The learning resource is still available from the link provided, but I am continuing to develop it.

tommy ruiz
6:58am 19 February 2016


Hi Maxine, 

 

It was a really good presentation. 

A lot of the comments made were good points. It shows that 10 mins aren't enough! 

Thanks for taking the time to answer all of them individually. I find that a lot of them are quite subjectives. As a result you posted links and different resrouces to guide the people who need more information. 

 

great idea. 

 

Good luck for your EMA! 

Anna Orridge
2:15pm 22 February 2016


Hi Maxine,

Thanks for the presentation, which drew my attention to some issues I hadn't considered re: flipped classroom. I came across these stats on Twitter and thought they might be handy for you.

http://jonbergmann.com/student-perceptions-of-a-flipped-class-infographic/

Dr Simon Ball
9:05am 23 February 2016


Many Congratulations Maxine! Your presentation has been voted by delegates to be one of the most effective of the H818 Online Conference 2016 and you are officially one of our H818 Presentation Star Open Badge Winners! Please see how to Apply for your Badge here: http://cloudworks.ac.uk/badge/view/33

Well done!

Simon

H818 Conference Organiser

Maxine Armstrong
4:19pm 25 February 2016


Hi Anna, Thank you for the article, I always like to see a good infographic, best wishes, Maxine

Maxine Armstrong
4:22pm 25 February 2016


Thank you to everyone who voted for my presentation. I cannot believe how well it went considering how nervous I was. I found the voting really hard as there was such wide variety of topics and styles. I think we all deserve a pat on the back. Best wishes, Maxine

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