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SCORE - Beyond Talk and Chalk: modes of cross-cultural OER reuse

Support cloud to virtual talk on OER reuse to SCORE fellows of the Open University UK - 14th July 2011

Cloud created by:

Andreia Inamorato Dos Santos
29 June 2011

This cloud aims to support my virtual talk from Brazil (via videoconference) to the fellows of the Support Centre of Open Resources in Education (SCORE - Support Centre for Open Resources in Education), on the 14th July 2011. The subject is open educational resources reuse cross-culturally. The case studies I present  were either research-based and supported by the Open Learning Network (OLnet), of the Open University UK or are based on day-to-day cases of reuse of OER in South America and Africa.

The aim is to think of the following research questions:

  1. What are the main barriers to OER reuse?
  2. What are the main drivers to OER reuse?
  3. What evidence do we have for OER reuse?

Participants are invited to think of these questions in relation to their own practice and experience and place any comments they may have in this page. Any other comments, questions and ideas that arise in relation to the talk and to the In situ Editing Unit in OpenLearn are also welcome here.

Thank you!

Andreia Santos

Extra content

OER Reuse: In situ editing unit in OpenLearn

Andreia Inamorato Dos Santos
09:53 on 14 July 2011 (Edited 09:54 on 14 July 2011)

Video on Vimeo: Aisha Project School, Zambia. OER and enquiry-based learning

Andreia Inamorato Dos Santos
09:57 on 14 July 2011 (Edited 09:58 on 14 July 2011)

E-learning Africa 2010 - Open Content Online blog post: Aisha Project School visit

Andreia Inamorato Dos Santos
10:02 on 14 July 2011 (Edited 12:40 on 14 July 2011)

What are the barriers to reusing/remixing OER? OLnet blog post

Andreia Inamorato Dos Santos
12:38 on 14 July 2011

Title: OER reuse stories: exploring reuse of open educational resource in art & design practice based learning & teaching?

Conference Topic Theme: Open experimental spaces

Format: Presentation and group discussion and workshop    

Authors: Mr. Christopher Follows (ALTO)

SCORE Fellow - (Support Centre for Open Resources in Education) Open University UK
ALTO coordinator - Arts Learning & Teaching online college coordinator (ALTO) University of the Arts London,

Keywords: collaboration, reuse, open, resources, practice, OER, open educational resources, process arts, sharing, open educational resources


Existing spaces
Creating resources and capturing process
Examples of student and staff resource
    Staff resources produced with support
Staff resources produced without support
Students producing resources for students
Sharing resources
UAL blogs & websites
OER arts resources

OER reuse stories: Reuse of OER learning & teaching resources
Group discussion
How do we reuse OER content in art & design practice based learning & teaching?
What are the main barriers to OER reuse?
What are the main drivers to OER reuse?
What evidence do we have for OER reuse?


In common with the rest of the UK higher education sector, the UAL faces a future of rapidly declining public funding while at the same time there are increasing pressures to improve the overall student learning experience including the delivery of more open, flexible and blended learning opportunities. But, for practice based subjects such as Art and Design where the full attendance, face-to-face teaching model is traditionally seen as the only, and the best, way to teach, extending the range of study modes and options presents a real challenge. It is clear that the traditional teaching model as well as a wide range of associated institutional support systems needs to change, the tricky questions for institutions is how to do so in such harsh times?1

Existing spaces
The University of the Arts London is predominately a making university; students are encouraged to be self-directed, reflective and engage in regular peer-to-peer and group critiques. Very few arts courses at UAL provide project briefs, most learning and teaching takes place in peer/tutor led small group collaborative discussions or one-to-one in an ‘open’ studio environment. This session will discuss how we create and share resources but will primarily focus on exploring the ‘reuse’ of learning and teaching resources.2

Creating resources and capturing process

CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 This image, Project 1 - final Crit and Presentation of work, by Chris Follows is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license.

Video, image and audio documentation is the preferred media for capturing and sharing practice based art and design tutorials and resources. Overcoming staff reluctance to create and share teaching resources can be a primary problem, time and production are the key issues for most academics and technical teachers but staff also have concerns regarding giving away their work or what they may see as defining their practice. 3

Examples of Student and staff resource

Staff resources produced with support: The examples below demonstrate the benefits of providing staff basic support to help them create and publish their own resources, low budget support can provide teachers vital time and space to produce quality resources for their students.

Introduction to sand casting videos (4 parts): these videos have been received well, attracting quality comments and over 100,000 Views YouTube -

Life Drawing - Laurence Noga - Wimbledon foundation 2010/11 -

Disc Sander demonstration -

Press molded ceramic sphere (2 parts) -

Staff resources produced without support:

Small Band Saw demonstration (Model-making Wood Workshop) -

Stretcher making worksheets 4 parts -
Sound and Story -

Contextual references English Plus Film -

Tips for documenting your work 3 Parts -

Students producing resources for students:

Posts by student Anna McAndrew -

Submerged (please see the student comments on this posts) -

Student documenting student -

Student interviewing student talking about their process -

Sharing resources?

Why do resources need to be open and if so why a dedicated website and not on Flickr or Youtube? What do students gain from sharing and what do teachers gain, how does openness and OER add value to the process?
The primary online communication tool at UAL is the internal VLE blackboard, with this each subject area is locked into its own closed section, the VLE can be complex and difficult to navigate. Blackboard does not facilitate sharing or browsing across courses or colleges and is closed to external users. As a result over the past few years with the development of Web 2.0 technology content learning and teaching is being independently dispersed across the web in various wikis, bolgs, group websites, personal youtube accounts, Flickr groups etc. Although collective participation remains a problem, good quality learning material is being produced and shared either internally hidden away in Blackboard or lost in locally shared group blogs, these resources often become dormant and lost as the onus is often placed on one person ‘the teacher’ to administer and develop this content alone, some content never leaves the classroom/studio. was developed in 2009 with the aim of creating a new user driven online studio community and collaborative resource that explores process in arts practice by showing the day-to-day studio/professional practice of staff and students of the six colleges of the University of the Arts London (UAL) whilst also sharing, informing and engaging with the wider community. Process.arts tries to address how we cluster all this activity together, encouraging users to collaborate, share and develop content in an space that bridges the internal and external e.g. the content published remains affiliated to the institution ‘the hosts’, but users are free to explore and develop this content as they wish with Web 2.0 CMS functionality which provides an open social layer within an accessible, familiar, and collaborative environment.

Students: it is common practice for students, teachers and artists to document their practice through exploring and questioning the process, for example in sketchbooks or through samples and experimentation. Process.arts aims to capture and encourage student centred learning through cross-college collaboration by capturing and publishing these interactions on process.arts.

Technical, academic and support staff at university of the arts London, its hoped a wide cross-section of staff will upload related academic and technical information to support their teaching practice, as well as viewing and commenting on the posts of others. Its also hoped staff will share information about their own arts practice showing images, video or audio documentation of their studio practice.

The ALTO project (Arts Learning and Teaching Online) at the University of the Arts London received funding in 2010 to engage the University with the rapidly growing global Open Education Resource (OER) movement. The ALTO project is concerned with the creation and sharing of Open Education Resources (OERs). See more about the ALTO project here and

UAL blogs & websites - There are many other UAL websites and blogs sharing and developing resources please visit this link -

OER arts resources - Please forward links to OER arts resources online and I will add them to the following cluster -

OER reuse stories: Reuse of OER learning & teaching resources

Group discussion
During the run up to this conference we aim to identify a core cluster of OER arts resource websites from around the world, process.arts and ALTO have produced a significant amount of new OER arts content for the sector to use, the question for this discussion and workshop is: ‘How do we reuse OER content in art & design practice based learning & teaching?’

Authorship as selection: It’s generally unknown how OER content is going to be repurposed and reused and there is very little evidence of this happening. Its thought sites such as process.arts and ALTO will attract a mixture resources, mostly granular in nature, although these standalone pieces of content are interesting it is difficult to assess how ‘useful’ they are with regards to learning aims, objectives and outcomes. On there own, these ‘informal’ learning resources could be dismissed as having little or no academic significance or use to the curriculum framework.

In this session we would explore the most effective and efficient ways of utilising OER in arts HEIs by identifying best processes and practices individually and collaboratively for creating learning resources/objects to support the learning design process in support of greater flexible and blended learning opportunities for future students in order to extend the range of study modes and options for the sector.

Below are some possible questions for debate, please feel free to suggest new questions and/or contribute, thank you.  

What are the main barriers to OER reuse?

How do we share and collaborate in this space and overcome the obstacles of use and re-use specifically when creating and designing complex rich media learning resources and objects?

Develop an Arts-OER ‘reuse’ community of practice, how would a discipline-based, cross-university online community of practice help to overcome staff reluctance to create and share teaching resources in an OER environment?

Examine the effective use of source files and edit notes in relation to producing better ‘editable’ learning resources/objects.

Investigate better methods of linking recourses with learning design by improving and exploring resource derivative information.

What are the main drivers to OER reuse?

Investigate and evaluate the most effective and efficient ways of utilising OER in arts HEIs by identifying best processes and practices for creating learning resources/objects to support the learning and teaching process.

Examine the effectiveness of inter-college and HEI collaborations.

The ALTO project team4 has concluded that there are many strong benefits for involvement with OER and its associated communities, because:
Support greater flexible and blended learning opportunities for future students in order to extend the range of study modes and options at the UAL and beyond.
It is an effective institutional and professional development tool in the context of externalizing practice, pedagogic conceptions and strategies in order to support reflection and development.
It provides a foundation to introduce and extend collaborative learning design skills amongst staff to support greater flexible and blended learning opportunities in order to extend the range of study modes and options
It brings external business and collaboration opportunities

What evidence do we have for OER reuse?

Observe and contrast current practice in the OER community.

Share stories, explore and exchange stories and examples of existing OER reuse practice which exploit the creation of new resources through the appropriation and reworking of existing content, ideas, materials and processes.

The arts have a strong tradition of creating new meanings through the appropriation and reworking of existing content, ideas, materials and processes, how can this tradition inform and encourage the development and reuse of OER rich media content.


Wenger, Etienne. (1998) Communities of Practice Learning, meaning and Identity. USA: Cambridge University Press  

Lave, Jean & Wenger, Etienne. (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. USA: Cambridge University Press

Shreeve, A. (2008). Transitions: variations in tutors’ experience of practice and teaching relations in art and design. PhD Thesis, Lancaster University, Lancaster.

Biggs, J. (1999). What the student does: Teaching for enhanced learning. Higher Education Research and Development, 18(1), 57-75.

Njenga, J. K. and Fourie, L. C. H. (2010) The myths about e-learning in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(2), p206

Brookfield, S. (1995) Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

David Wiley (2008):

Manovich, L. (2001) The Language of new media. Massachusetts Institute of technology

Casey. J (2011) abstract and presentation ‘Taking Care of Business: Sustainable Engagement with OCW and OER’ -

Chris Taylor - chr1staylor (Twitter) source:

 This work by Chris Follows is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Chris Follows
16:12 on 24 August 2011

Embedded Content

The role of mentoring in facilitating the process of repurposing OER

The role of mentoring in facilitating the process of repurposing OER

Accessible Alternative
added by Andreia Inamorato Dos Santos


Andreia Inamorato Dos Santos
11:53am 14 July 2011 (Edited 11:55am 14 July 2011)

Have you got an example of OER reuse to share with us? Or any comments on the research questions on the top of the page?

Samantha Appleyard
3:59pm 14 July 2011


I think one benefit of reusing OER is being able to enhance simple learning objects with additional media content that might be quite resource intensive to produce, e.g. Flash objects or polished videos, and which you might not have been able to include otherwise.


The 'What is OER' debate is taking place at OER-forum - open educational resources: an online discussion forum. To join the list, follow the link below:



Hi! So true, it is great to be able to draw on  and share the efforts of others to enhance our own practices...and contribute back whenever possible ;-)

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